I know that if you buy lamps for the cooler temps indoors it provides more than enough light and warmth. You don't place them directly on the plants of course. It will with time require repotting and plenty of moisture depending on the plant. But I know it can be done!
What kind of light do you have in your basement? Artificial or solar.... Indoor gardening is a great idea. However, it is not the most energy efficient if you go all in on your lighting. Just one 1000 watt metal halide (hid) lamp will really make the electric meter spin alot faster. It of course depends on the crop you wish to cultivate. Take mushrooms/fungi for example, no light needed at all! Yet for them to thrive things need to be just right in many other ways! I think for vegan purposes this would be your portabella holy grail.
So to answer the question- Yes. But count on getting a little serious if you want to go beyond the chia pet;) And stay away from hydroponic type mediums and stick with mamma dirt because this will be reflected in the taste. I do some indoor gardening up here in the north of Sweden with my American green thumb and finger. I'm near the artic cirk so it gets perty dark and cold in the winter. I must say there is some satisfaction in getting fresh produce in the mid of wint.
Just go pick up an 80 or so watt fluorescent lighting fixture some starter pots, potting soil, loam, perculite and some soft crop seeds. Peppers, tomatoes,..... no root crops(potatoes, carrots) or mound/vine crops(squash) that's later.....And, well, I could type you through it if you want:)
We got and Aerogarden for Christmas gift and I have Lettuce growing in my basement. Wasn't sure how i'd feel about it, but I have one plant that is almost the size of my hand and it was planted on New years.
I've read that it doesn't use a lot of electricity even thought the bulbs are on so much and the plants will release oxygen, etc. I'm hoping that it isn't too bad of an environmental move, but having veggies in my basement is kind of cool.
Sprouts!! I have an Easy Sprouter that I got for Christmas and I've made 3 batches of sprouts so far. I have azuki and mung beans going right now. The best was the garbanzo, peas, and azuki mix. You can do it anywhere, doesn't require light or anything, and you can eat something in as little as a couple of days!
ok this may sound weird but if you have an old fish tank set up it becomes the perfect in doorgarden and the limit of what you can grow is based on the size. i have a 35 gal setup that grows herbs, broclie, lettuce, strawberries ect (not all at the same time but i still get a nice little yield) So to do this, fill the tank about half way with good soil/ compost, plant what you intend to grow and change out the fish light for a plant growing light ( this can be bought at almost any petstore in the fish or reptile section). Keeping the lid on the tank will help keep the plants warm and raise the humidity to mimic summer weather. Water well and enjoy! Another thing you can grow inside in a pot on your kitchen table id the tom thumb pea plant (i dont have one yet, but my seeds should be ariving soon in the mail) you can buy the seeds and many other awsome heirloom plants at http://seedsavers.org/ hope this helps!